That's why sailors always changing their settings to keep them as close as possible the separation sails without the to stall. This requires constant attention, because the setting must be adapted to changes in speed, heading, and wind changes. Strands of wool or ribbons (favors) are often set in various parts of hollow sails to materialize flow nets wind, and report the stall.
To improve the performance sailboats, speedboats architects also influence the shape of mast (wing masts) to further improve these flows. Resembling the close, sailing has a propulsive force as its angle relative to apparent wind is still large enough (about twenty degrees). This has the consequence that it is possible with a vehicle with a low resistance to progress, to go faster than the true wind. This is the case for example windsurfers, multihulls, mono hulls designed some of Planing and tanks to sails. Craft being the fastest sailing ice tanks capable of reaching four to five times the speed of wind.
The operating principle of a sails depends on the speed of vessel, that is to say the direction of ship to wind. A sails works in two ways: Either flow attached which shows a phenomenon of lift to paces from close to reaching, Is flowing hook, and a board that we would position perpendicular to wind. This is the mode that looks grand and dropped downwind.
When the ship goes back to wind, the wind flow along the veil creates a pressure difference between the windward side (underside) and leeward (suction). In fact, depression is formed on the upper surface, which "pulls" the ship, allowing it to go upwind. This same phenomenon applied to an airplane wing, which allows him to fly.
One can consider a sails attached flow charge of a system as a deflecting air mass. Just like a shot putter gets a centrifugal force by spinning his hammer, sailing receives is proportional to mass of air deflected and the deflection angle power. The amount of air is deflected from the product:
This sails had its heyday In river navigation: easy to implement, it was adapted to folding or removable masts various vessels such as barges, barges, and some barges. Among the boats that brought this rig to perfection, we have the Thames barges which some copies still sailing today at the marina, while others lie dormant in a museum.
To avoid when the wind increases, it moves the center of gravity towards the rear, moving crew, use of ballast, for example, depending on the size of boat. It also guides the back and center of buoyancy sailing (or tilt mast rake). Depending on the time and place, the shape of sails vary significantly. The theoretical shape with the best performance in attached flow is a half vertical ellipse whose base touches the surface of water.
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