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What You Should Know About Military Antennas

By Patty Goff

In professional satellite communications transmitters, it is common for a single antenna to work with two orthogonal polarizations simultaneously, so that the available bandwidth for the signal on the link is doubled (military antennas). To do this, standing next to one ortho-mode transducer feeder, which has a circular waveguide port connected to the horn and two orthogonal rectangular waveguide ports, each of which works in a different polarization.

This parameter is defined as the ratio between the maximum radiated power in a geometric direction and power radiated in opposite direction. When this relationship is reflected in dB scale, the ratio F / B (Front / Back) is the difference in dB between the maximum radiation level and radiation level of 180 degrees. This parameter is especially useful when interference back is critical in choosing the antenna that we use.

A typical loop antenna is made of copper, in resonance with a variable capacitor when transmitting and can withstand high voltages. The transmission can take many amps and the voltage across the capacitor several kilovolts. Loops of copper are more effective than lower managers, due to the large flow. Loops are circular and more efficient than squares, an alternative is octagoner that are easier to manufacture.

Bandwidth is a frequency range in which the antenna parameters meet certain characteristics. Can define impedance bandwidth, polarization, gain or other parameters. Directivity is the impedance of masts at its terminals. It is the relationship between the voltage and the input current. Z = frac V I. The impedance is a complex number. The real part of an impedance is called mast resistance and the imaginary part is reactance.

The antenna resistance is the sum of the transmission resistance and loss resistance. The antennas are called resonant when its input reactance vanishes. Beam is a radiation parameter, linked to a radiation pattern. May define the beam width at -3 dB, which is angular range within which the radiated power density is equal to half of maximum power (in main direction of radiation).

The antenna location should have unrestricted access to just above the the sky. Earth would reflect more or less of radio waves. This depends on: mast placed as high as possible so that there are no obstructions between the transmitter and receiver. Satellite or interstellar radio propagation (Earth to satellite, space shuttle) or (satellite, space shuttle to Earth). There must be no obstructions between the satellite and ground transmitters.

The polarization can be linear, circular and elliptical. Linear polarization can take different orientations (horizontal, vertical, +45, -45). The circular or elliptical polarizations can be right or left (right-handed or left-handed), according to the direction of rotation of the field (observed away from the antenna). Transmitters within decoupling coefficient defined polarization. This measures the amount of power that is capable of receiving a polarized antenna of a form having an effective.

If, in each of these ports, a diplexer, which separates the frequency bands of emission and reception, it will be a feeder four ports with a single antenna will be able to send and receive both polarizations simultaneously placed. At other times, these antennas have only two ports, one for emitting a polarization and the other to receive the opposite polarization.

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Ditulis oleh: Faisal Reza Siregar - Sunday, November 2, 2014

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